Poznan has important role as one of oldest cities in Poland
It was the capital of Greater Poland, the cradle of the Polish state and was also Poland's capital in the mid-10th century during the early Piast dynasty. Poznan Cathedral is the oldest church in whole Poland, containing the tombs of the first Polish rulers, Duke Mieszko I and King Boleslaus the Brave.
The first settlements were found from Stone Age and later various cultures developed here in the Bronze Age and Iron Age. The first stronghold was built in the 8th-9th century AD on the Ostrów Tumski - the island in the forks of Warta and Cybina rivers. Subsequently it was surrounded by various settlements on the islands and on both banks of Warta River. In 10th century Poznan and Gniezno were the main sites of Polish dukes, and centres of the developing Polish state. In 968 the first Polish bishoprics and the first Polish cathedral were founded here (first bishop was Jordan). First Polish monarchs of the Piast dynasty Mieszko I, Boleslaus I the Brave and Mieszko II Lambert are buried in the Poznan cathedral.
Poznan became first seat of bishop Jordan, who after the conversion of Mieszko I to Christianity, was the missionary bishop of Poland (968 - 982). The Diocese of Poznan was created in 999, formally in 1000 at the Congress of Gniezno, under jurisdiction of archbishopric of Gniezno, with emperor Otto and Boleslaw I agreeing to create the independent diocese, subordinated directly to the pope. In 1133 Poznan was attached by the pope to the archbishop of Magdeburg. However in 1136 a pope again confirmed that Poznan was suffragan of Gniezno.
During the internal fighting and the Bohemian Czech invasion of Bretislaus I in 1038, Poznan and Gniezno were destroyed and lost their capital cities status to Cracow under Casimir I the Restorer (1039–1058). The two cities and bishoprics were rebuilt by the king Boleslaus II the Generous (1058–1079). Since the feudal fragmentation of Poland began in 1138, Poznan was the capital of Greater Poland division and the main site of the local duke's dynasty started by Mieszko III the Old. The city was developing quickly and in 12th century it was surrounded by trade-and-crafts settlements of St. Gotard, St. Martin, St. Adalbert on the left bank of the Warta river. Przemysl II, son of Przemysl I, built a castle on the so called "Przemysl hill" and surrounded the city with a wall. In 1295 Przemysl II was crowned king of Poland.